Vocabulary English - English

 

to abbreviate

to make short

to abolish

to end

accent (n)

a way of pronouncing English

to act

to be in a play or film

aggressive

liking to attack people or their ideas

agriculture

farming

all in one go

without taking a breath while drinking

altar

a special table at the front of a church

amphetamine

a drug which gives a sense of excitement

anarchy

when there is confusion in society and no government

Anglican

of the Church of England

Anglican Church

the Church of England

annoying

causing anger or irritation

anorak

a jacket with a hood

antiquities

works of art remaining from old times

to appoint

to choose

archery

shooting with bows and arrows

architecture

art of designing buildings

aristocracy

the 'ruling class', sometimes connected with royalty

armed struggle

fighting with weapons

to arrest

to take prisoner

art

the creation or expression of what is beautiful, esp in visual form;

fine skill or aptitude in such expression: the art of the Renaissance; children's art; the art of landscape painting. The story is developed with great art.

artefact

something made by human beings

assembly

religious meeting held at the beginning of a school day

associations

connections

auld

old

authorization

permission to do something

background

past, ancestry

badge

a special mark, a sign of membership: each school has its own badge

bagpipes

musical instrument with air stored in a bag held under the arm

baking powder

a powder used instead of yeast to make cakes rise

ball

a formal dance

to ban

to forbid, stop

bank

a place where you keep money

Bank Holiday

a public holiday

bargain

something worth buying because the price is low

Barnet fair

a festival in Barnet, an area of East London

bat

instrument for hitting a ball

to bat

to hit (especially in cricket or baseball)

barrister

a lawyer who argues cases in a high court

battlements

a wall around a castle or town, with holes to shoot through

to be good at sth.

≠ to be bad at sth.

beat (n)

the noise of the drum

beauty-spot

a place people visit because it is beautiful

to behead

to cut off someone's head

beret

a soft flat hat for schoolgirls

to besiege

to attack

to behave oneself

not to cause a disturbance

to betray

to be unfaithful to

big dipper

small carriages on a big curved track that take you up and down through water at the fair

big wheel

a huge wheel which you can sit in as it rotates high into the air

bill

the special name for a proposal before it becomes law

biography

a person's life history written by someone else

blazer

a jacket

bloody

where many people are killed

to blow up

to explode

boarding house

a private house where you pay to stay and have breakfast and perhaps an evening meal

bottleneck

a place where you often find a traffic jam

to bowl

to throw a ball

bowler hat

a roundish black hat with a short brim

bow tie

a tie made in the shape of a bow, usually worn with a dinner jacket

braces

elasticated straps which go over the shoulders to keep up one's trousers

brave

ready to face danger, pain or suffering; having no fear: as brave as a lion. Be brave! It was brave of him to enter the burning building.

break

a pause for rest between lessons, usually about 20 minutes

to break down

not to work

to break into

to use force to enter a place

to break up

to separate

breathtaking

something so beautiful that it stops you breathing for a moment

bridge

a bridge carries a road over a river

to bring to mind

to remember

broadly

approximately

to build up

to increase the number

bullet

something fired from a gun

bungalow

a small house with just one storey

bun

a sweet bread roll

by-pass

a road which goes round the edge of a town, avoiding the town centre

campaign (n)

a fight, often used figuratively

campus

the site of a university or college

canal

a channel cut through land for use of boats or ships

canal wharf

a place to tie up a boat and come on to land

cannibalism

eating human flesh

canteen

the place in a school or factory where you can buy food

cap

a soft flat hat for men and boys

carol

a Christmas hymn

carol singers

people who sing religious songs at Christmas, often to collect money for charity

carriage

the place for passengers on a train

castor sugar

very fine sugar

to cater for

to provide facilities (shops, hotels, etc) for

cathedral

a big, important church

caught up with

involved with

causeway

- raised road especially across wet land

- a raised road across water

celery

a kind of vegetable

cement

grey powder mixed with water and used for building

century

one hundred years

cereal

grains such as corn, wheat, oats and barley

channel

a TV station

chaos

great confusion

charge (n)

cost, expense, money

charity

an organization which helps people, without making a profit

chart

a list of best-selling single records

choir

a group of singers

church

a building where people go to talk and sing to a god

churchyard

a burial ground round a church

the Civil Service

government administration

civil war

a war between two parts of the same country

cliff

a steep rock

clothes conscious

very aware of the way one dresses

club tie

a necktie with a special design worn by members of a group or club

clutch

a pedal to connect and disconnect the gear

coach

a four-wheeled carriage with seats inside, pulled by horses

to commemorate

to honour the memory of someone

common language

a language spoken by everybody

common-room

a room for use of students or teachers for relaxation

the Commonwealth

an organization of independent states which were part of the British empire

to commute

to travel regularly a long distance between home and work

comprehensive (school)

a school combining all types of secondary education

conference

a meeting to exchange ideas and opinions

congested

crowded

conservative

a political view characterized by wanting things to remain the same

to conserve

to keep and protect

constable

ordinary policeman

container-port

a port dealing with cargo in very large special containers

contented

happy

continental Europe

- the part of Europe that excludes the British Isles

- Europe except the British Isles

- the mainland of Europe

contraction

abbreviation

to convert

to change

coronation

a ceremony when a new monarch is crowned

to correspond to

to represent

county

- the largest division of government within a state

- an administrative area of the UK

county town

the chief town of a county

to criticize

to find faults with

the Crown

- the King or Queen

- the right to be king or queen

cruelty

pleasure in causing pain

cruiser

a small pleasure boat with an engine which has room for sleeping

to crush

to press till something breaks

to cycle

to ride a bike

daisy

a small white and yellow flower

to date back

to have existed since

dawn (n)

sunrise

day release

the system where someone in employment can study for one day a week

to debate

to discuss formally

decade

ten years

decline (n)

a decrease

decrease

to become less

defendant

an accused person

degree

a university qualification

delicatessen

a shop that sells 'special', usually non-British, food

to demonstrate

to protest publicly

deposed

removed from the throne

deserted

empty, lonely

designer

someone who thinks of new ideas for clothes

destination

the place to which someone or something is going

to destroy

break something so that you can't use it again

detached

a house which is not attached to any others

devil

the spirit of evil, Satan

devolution

giving part of the power of government to a smaller area or country

diagonal

a line going from one corner of a rectangle to the opposite corner

diesel engine

a train which uses oil as fuel

dinner-jacket

a man's black jacket worn on formal occasions

disc-jockey

a person who plays records on the radio or at a discotheque

discrimination

treating someone differently because of their colour, race, religion or sex

distillery

a place where whiskey is made

distinct

separate and special

ditch

- a narrow channel dug in a field

- a long hole dug in the ground

division

a part of the football league, containing 22 teams

to do the dishes

to wash the dishes

to do without

to survive without something

dole

money given by the government to unemployed people. 'To be on the dole' or 'to join the dole queue' means to be unemployed

dome

the rounded top of a building, eg a church

domestic science

cookery and housekeeping

dough

a mixture of flour and water or milk

to drain

to reduce or get rid of water

drainpipe

long metal pipe for carrying away water

dragon

a mythical animal

dramatist

writer of plays

to draw

to attract

dreadlocks

long strands of tightly-curled hair - a style typical of Rastafarian men

dress (n)

national costume

drug (n)

a chemical which affects your mind or body

dummy

an object made to look like a real person

dye (n)

a chemical used to colour material, etc

to dye

to colour

eclipse (n)

the disappearance of the light of the sun or reflected light of the moon, when the moon is between the sun and the earth, or when the earth's shadow falls on the moon

eel

a snake-like fish

eisteddfod

annual gathering of poets and musicians in Wales

elderly

old (people)

election campaign

an organized attempt to persuade people to vote for a particular political party

eloquent

speaking well and fluently

to emerge

to appear

emperor

a king of many countries

empty

≠ full

to enrich

to make richer or more interesting

Esperanto

an artificial language designed for world use

estate

an area on which many houses are built

estuary

the mouth of a river

event

something that happens

evil

bad

excavation

digging to find old, historical things

to excommunicate

to expel from the Church

to execute

- to kill

- to be killed on the orders of a government or judge

exhibition

a number of things in one place for people to see

expression

a phrase

extracurricular

not part of the school timetable

to fall down

move quickly down to the ground

fan(s)

- enthusiastic supporters

- an admirer, supporter

- someone who is very interested in something or somebody

to fast

to stop eating

to feature

to be the most important part of something

fertile

rich soil where things grow easily

festivity

celebration

fight

when people hit and try to kill each other

finals

final exams at university or college

fire

something hot that destroys things

to flee from

to run away from

to flood

to cover with water

floodlights

large lights used for lighting a big area

floodlit

lit with very strong lights

folk group

a band which plays traditional music of a country (folk music)

food

the things we eat

football season

the time of year when football is played, winter in the UK

force

an army

forgiveness

willingness to pardon, not to want to punish someone

form (n)

class

framework

the part of a structure that gives support

friar

a man who is a member of a religious order

front

a road beside the sea where people can walk

full

≠ empty

funfair

an amusement park

Further Education College

college where one can study after the age of 16

gale

an extremely strong wind

gallery

rooms where you can go to look at pictures

gambler

a person who makes a living by games of chance, eg in a casino

gas mark

a system for measuring temperature in a gas oven

to generate

to produce and send

gent

humorous word for 'gentleman'

geological composition

the formation of rocks

to get away from it all

to escape from the noise and pressure of everyday life

to get one's kicks

to find excitement

to get together

to join, unite

ghost

spirit

glen

narrow valley

to glitter

to shine

to go on

to happen

goods

things for sale

government

the people who say what must happen in a country

grammar school

a secondary school which teaches mainly academic subjects

grant

money given by an organization, eg the Local Authority

great

very good and very important

green (n)

grass and trees

grim

severe, unfriendly

grounds

large gardens of a house

guard

a soldier who watches a place to keep it safe

haberdashery

a shop or department which sells small articles of clothing and sewing materials

hall of residence

a building owned by a college or university, containing study bedrooms for students

to hammer

to hit repeatedly

hanged

killed by hanging from a rope tied round the neck

harmful

causing harm or injury

harvest

to cut and gather crops

to haunt

to live in a house as a ghost

headlines

the most important pieces of news in the newspaper or on TV or radio

heath

area of sandy soil where you will probably find heather ( a plant)

hedge

a line of bushes, often forming a boundary between fields

heir

someone who has the legal right to receive money or property or a title when someone dies

hereditary peer

a lord who has gained his title by birth

here to stay

here for ever

hero

1. person respected for bravery or noble qualities

2. chief person in a poem, story, play, etc

hidden messages

secret information

highlander

a person who comes from or lives in the Scottish Highlands

Hindu

a member of an Indian religion

hit

a successful record

to hold office

to have various jobs in government

holly

a plant with prickly leaves

hooliganism

activity of hooligans: rough, noisy people who cause trouble by fighting and breaking things

hostility

the feelings of an enemy

to house

to contain

house-to-house search

looking for someone or something in every house in a particular area

hull

the main body of a ship

hunger march (n)

a walk organized by people who are protesting against unemployment and hunger

hymn

a song sung in Church

to immigrate

to move to a new country to live

imperial measures

the system of measurement traditionally used in the UK

infamous

well-known for negative reasons

infant school

a school for pupils aged 5 - 7

infectious

(a rhythm) which makes you want to dance

infirmary

a hospital

inflation

a rise in prices caused by increased wages, etc

influential

having influence; powerful

inland waterway

a system of rivers and lakes joined together and not connected with the sea

insect repellent

a cream or spray which kills insects

inspired

influenced

insurance

a company which promises to pay a sum of money in case of illness or death, in return for regular payments

to invade

go to a country and fight the people there

ironmonger

a person who sells things made of metal

italics

sloping print, like this: Lundy

itinerary

a journey, route

joint

a particular cut of meat

judicial

legal

junior school

a school for pupils aged 8 - 11

jury

twelve people who decide in court if a defendant is innocent or guilty

keen

enthusiastic

to keep down

to oppress, hold in an inferior position

key area

an important place

kids (informal)

children or young people

to kill

to make somebody die

kilt

a tartan skirt worn by men in the Scottish Highlands

kind

having, showing, thoughtfulness, sympathy or love for others: be kind to animals. Will you be kind enough/so kind as to close the door? It was kind of you to help us.

king

the most important man in a country (often husband of a queen)

knight

a nobleman, usually military

knockout

a competition which teams leave when beaten

lad

a young man

landmark

usually a building that is easily seen from a distance

lantern

a light out-of-doors

lasting (adj)

which continues for a long time

leading

most important

league

a group of football teams which play matches among themselves

leek

a long onion-like vegetable

legal representation

help given to a defendant, usually by a barrister in court

legend

- an old story

- a story or folk-tale

less

≠ more

lifeboat

a small boat for saving people from drowning

life peer

a lord whose title will not be inherited by his children

lighthouse-keeper

the person who looks after the building with a light which warns ships

linen

fine woven cloth used for bed-sheets, etc.

liner

a ship

live (adj)

not recorded

to live in exile

having to live away from one's own country, usually as a punishment

living (n)

way of earning money

Local Education Authority

the education department of local government

locomotive

engine

long (adv)

for a long time

to long for

to wish for very much

loose

not tight-fitting, large

Lord Mayor

the leader of the group of people elected to govern London

to lose touch

to lose contact

lough

a lake

LSD

hallucinatory drug (lysergic acid diethylamide)

lunch

the food that you eat in the middle of the day

madness

insanity

maiden voyage

the first journey of a ship

main

most important

mainland

- the main part of a country or continent, without islands

- a larger area of land in contrast to small islands

to maintain

to keep

maintenance

keeping in good working condition

to manage without

to live without, ie leave behind

mandolin

a musical instrument with 6 or 8 metal strings and a rounded body

marchers

people in a procession, particularly on a protest march

market

a place in the street where you can buy and sell things

marmalade

jam made of oranges

marquee

a very large tent

marsh

wet land

match

a game between two or more people

to match

to put together correctly

materialism

the belief that you can be happy through the possession of objects

maybe

perhaps

mechanized farming

farming which makes use of machines

mediaeval

of the period of history between 1100 and 1500, the Middle Ages

medical properties

capable of curing illness

medicine-man

a doctor in primitive society

means

ways

Mesolithic

middle part of the Stone Age beginning about 15,000 years ago

Mesolithic

of or relating to a middle period of the Stone Age (following the paleolithic)

metropolis

the chief city of a country

middle school 

a school for pupils aged 9 - 12

mince-pie

a small pie filled with dried fruit and spices

miniature

very small but exactly like the normal sized object

miracle

an act which cannot be explained by the laws of nature

mixed ability

different levels of intelligence

monastery

a place where monks live as a community

monster

a huge and frightening animal

moor

a wild, open, often high area

moped

a motorized bicycle

moral education

learning what is good and bad behaviour

Morris men

traditional dancers

mountain

a very high hill

multiracial

having many races

museum

a building to keep beautiful, old and interesting things for people to look at

music

a nice noise to listen to when people sing or play something

Muslim

a member of the Islamic religion

myth

an old story

narrator

a person telling a story

national anthem

the song of a country

National Health Service

the organization which gives free health care to all citizens

national insurance

money taken by the government from one's pay, which acts as insurance in case of sickness, unemployment etc

navigating

steering a boat in the right direction

negotiation

discussion

neutral

not belonging to any one party

new release

a new record

nobleman

a man in a position of power through his birth

nuclear weapons

bombs which release atomic energy

nuffink

nothing (slang)

nursery school

a school for children under 5

oatmeal

ground oats used to make porridge and oatcakes

to observe

to watch carefully

to obtain to get

office

room(s) used as a place of business: a lawyer's office; working in an office, in business, eg as a clerk or typist; our London office, our branch in London

offshore

a short way out to sea

oil-field

an area where petroleum is found

old-age pension

money received by people over 60 when they stop work

old-age pensioner

a woman over 60 or a man over 65, receiving a state pension

old masters

great painters of the 16th to 19th centuries

optional

not obligatory

Orangemen

members of a Protestant political society in Ulster

oratory

the skill of making persuasive, emotional speeches

outbreak (n)

the start

overcrowded

with too many people

to own

to possess, having as property

oyster

a kind of shellfish

packed lunch

a lunch brought from home

to paddle

to walk in water just a few inches deep

Pal(a)eolithic

of or relating to the second period of the Stone Age (following the eolithic)

Pal(a)eolithic

second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,000 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC

paper

a piece of writing on an academic subject

park

a place where there are trees and grass and where people can sit and walk

Parliament

- an important building in the middle of London; the people who say what must happen in a country work here

parsonage

a house where a parson (priest) lives

pastry

a mixture of flour and water, used for pies

patriotic

strongly supporting one's own country

to patrol

to go round the streets to make sure that everything is all right

patron saint

- a saint regarded as special protector

- a saint who is strongly associated with a particular country

peak (n)

the top of a mountain

peninsula

an area of land almost surrounded by sea

penny whistle

a simple cheap musical pipe

perhaps

maybe

to pick

to choose

pier

a metal construction stretching out to sea

pilgrimage

a journey to a holy place

pillowcase

a cover for a pillow (a cushion for your head on a bed)

piping

playing the bagpipes

pin-striped suit

a suit made from material with very thin stripes

pirate

a person who robs ships at sea

pit (n)

a hole in the ground where miners dig out coal

place

where something or someone is

plague

a deadly disease carried by rats

Plaid Cymru

Welsh Nationalist Party

planter

a Protestant settler in Ulster

pole

a long rounded piece of wood or metal

political party

a group of people united in politics

poppy

a bright red flower

post (n)

a piece of wood in the ground

power station

a building where electric power is generated

prejudice (n)

thinking badly of people without really knowing them

preparatory school

a private school for pupils aged 7 - 13

preserved

- in good condition

- kept pure, unchanged by outside influences

the press

newspapers and magazines in general

priest

a minister of the Christian Church

Prime Minister

the chief minister of a government

prison

a place to keep bad people

proclaim

to make known officially

producer

the person who is responsible for a TV or radio programme

program

coded information fed into a computer

promenade

a road beside the sea where people can walk

properties

qualities, characteristics

prosperous

rich, wealthy

Protestantism

a form of Christianity started by Martin Luther in the 16th century, when he 'protested' against Roman Catholicism

pub

a building where people drink and eat, and talk to their friends

public holiday

a day when nobody goes to work

public school

a private school for pupils aged 13 - 18

to put down

to defeat

putting the stone

a sport in which a heavy stone is thrown as far as possible

quarter

an area (of a town)

quarters

the place where soldiers live while in the army

queen

the most important woman in a country (often wife of a king)

racism

belief that your race is superior to all others

radical

wanting political change

to rage

to be very angry

range

a line

wide range

a large selection

Rastafarian

a member of a West Indian religion

to rave

to behave as if mad

raven

a black bird

to rear

to bring up an animal

rebel (n)

a person who rejects authority, eg a government

rebellion

fighting against someone in power, usually a government

recession

decline of business and trade

recipe

instructions for preparing and cooking food

recorded town

a town described in old books

recover

to find, save

to refine

to make pure

refinery

place where oil is purified (refined)

remains

the parts of an old building which are left after it has fallen down or disappeared

reptile

a cold-blooded animal

ride (n)

something exciting to sit in, or on, and move very fast

rite/ritual

religious act(s), usually performed in a special order

referendum

a vote 'yes' or 'no' on one question only

refine

to make pure

reggae

- West Indian pop music with a strong rhyth

- West Indian popular music and dance

registration

a period when pupils answer to their names to see if anyone is absent

to reign

(of a monarch) to rule

to relegate

to send down

religious order

group of people living under religious rules

to rent

to hire a room for money

reputation

what people say

residence

a grand house where a public figure lives

residential area

the part of the town where people live

resort (n)

- a place where tourists stay

- a place where tourists go to, usually at the seaside

to restore

to repair, to modernize

to retire

to give up work, usually around the age of 60

retired

too old to work

to retreat

to go back

reunion

a meeting, usually after a long period of separation

rioting

a crowd of people causing public disorder

to rise

to stand up, leave one's home

role

a part in a play

rolling pin

long round piece of wood, used to make pastry

roots

feeling of sharing a common past, culture etc

royalist

a supporter of the monarchy

rucksack

a bag carried on the back

ruined

destroyed by failure, caused for example, by drinking too much

to run

to organize, administer

to run away from the law

to run away from the police

rural

of or in the country

rush-hour

times when crowds of people travel to and from work

sale

when things are reduced in price in the shops

sanctuary

an area where birds, animals or plants are protected from man and other enemies

sandcastle

a small castle made at the beach out of sand, usually by children

savoury

not sweet; salty

scattered

in different places

script

the text for a radio or TV play

secondary school

a school for pupils aged 11 - 16 or 18

selective school

a school which pupils must pass certain exams to enter

self-indulgent

giving way to one's own desires very easily

to sell

≠ to buy

seminar

a discussion

sentence to death

to punish by death

session

the time taken by one meeting of Parliament

in session

working (a session is the time taken by one meeting of Parliament)

set (n)

a group of pupils who form a class in a particular subject

setting

surroundings, place where something happens

set text

a literary work which must be studied for an exam

settler

a person who goes to live in a new country

share (n)

part ownership in a company

to ship

to send by ship

shipwreck

a ship which has been destroyed at sea, often on rocks

short for

an abbreviation of

shrine

a tomb containing holy remains eg bones or clothing

siege (n)

an attack by an army which surrounds a town and waits for the inhabitants to surrender

Sikh

a member of an Indian religion

single

a record with one song on each side

skills

knowledge and experience; abilities

slang

very informal language (unsuitable for many situations)

slums

area of poor, dirty houses or flats

social education

lessons to prepare for adult life, not for exams, eg how to manage money, politics

social welfare

social services financed by the government; health care, pensions, insurance, dole, etc

social worker

a person employed to give help or advice

solar

of the sun

soldier

a man or woman who fights for their country

solicitor

a lawyer who gives advice and prepares legal documents

so long as

if, on condition that

souvenir

a thing bought or kept as a reminder of a place

to sow the seeds

to begin something big in a small way

to speak

say something

spot

the exact place

to stab

to push a knife into

staff

a group of assistants who work under a manager

to staff

to supply an institution (eg a school or a department) with workers

stained glass

coloured glass

stake (n)

a piece of wood to which people were tied to be killed, especially by burning

stalagmite

like a stalagtite, but it stands on the floor of a cave

stalagtite

a long structure formed by dripping water which hangs from the roof of a cave

to stand for Parliament

to offer oneself for election

starve

to die because of lack of food

steadily

regularly

stepping stones

raised stones in a river

stilts

long wooden poles with support for the feet, designed so that you can walk without your feet touching the ground

store

a shop

strike (n)

a time when workers refuse to work, in order to get better pay and conditions

striking images

ideas or pictures in poetry that are unusual and wild

study periods

free lessons when pupils can study privately

suburb

an area on the edge of a city

in succession

one after the other

suet

animal fat used in cooking

sugar-beet

a plant from which sugar is made

summit

the top of a mountain

superstars

extremely famous people in entertainment

superstition

belief in magic, witchcraft, etc

supplement (n)

something added to a book or a series of books

suppressed

stopped by the law

to surf

to ride on top of the waves, balanced on a long board

suspend

to stop for a time

sweater

a woollen piece of clothing with long sleeves

swede

an orange root vegetable, like a carrot

sweeten to taste

add as much sugar as you want

swinging

full of life, sexually free

to tackle

to attack an opponent, in order to take the ball in rugby

talented (adj)

with a natural ability to do something well

target

something to be hit

tax

money paid by citizens to the government for public purposes

teaspoon

a spoon used to stir tea

to tattoo

to mark skin with words or pictures

tent

a construction made of canvas, used for sleeping in when camping

terrestrial

of the earth or land

textile

concerned with cloth

theatre

a building where you can see plays and hear music

three part harmony singing

three voices singing together

to thunder

to make a noise like thunder in a storm

tight-fitting

fitting close to the body

time machine

a machine which takes you into the past or future

timetable

list showing the days or hours at which events will take place, work will be done, trains etc will depart

tolerant

accepting (different ideas or people)

tomb

the place where a dead person is buried, ususally large and decorated

top 30

the 30 most popular songs based on the sales of records in the shops

to toss the caber

to throw a log of wood as far as possible

in touch

in contact

tour (n)

a journey to see many things or places

track

a line or path

track

a steel line on which trains run

trade union

an organization of a group of workers

traditional (adj)

when something is traditional, it has been done for a long time without changing

traffic jam

a queue of cars, lorries, buses, etc.

trail

a path, a route than can be followed

transatlantic steamer

a large ship worked by steam which crosses the Atlantic Ocean

treaty

an agreement

triumph

victory

try (n)

(rugby) touching down the ball behind the opponents' goal-line

try your hand

to try something for the first time

tube

the London Underground

tuck-shop

a place in a school where pupils buy snacks, sweets

tuition fee

teaching costs

turbine

an engine whose driving-wheel is turned by water

turkey

a big bird

tutor

a teacher in a college or university who leads a discussion group

TV personalities

people who are famous because they appear on TV

unhappy

≠ happy

unhealthy

≠ healthy

urban

of the town or city

utensil

a tool for use in the kitchen

vain

having a high opinion of one's looks

vampire

a dead person who drinks the blood of living people

vice versa

the other way round

view

everything you can see from one place

vine

a plant which produces grapes

voluntary

not paid to do a job

to wander

to go from one place to another without a real purpose

war

a time of fighting between two countries

warehouse

a large building for storing things

to wash down

to swallow liquid with something

washed up

carried on to the beach by the waves of the sea

waterfall

a river which falls over rocks or cliffs

water tower

a reservoir or tank for the distribution of water in an area

wave (n)

a period

wealthy

very rich

weaver

a person who makes cloth

webbed feet

feet with the toes joined, eg ducks have webbed feet

we'll drink a cup of kindness yet

we'll drink to our friendship

wet (adj)

to get wet is to get water on you

whale

a large sea animal

wharf

a place for tying up boats and ships

whodunnit

a detective story (who's done it?)

wicked

bad

wilderness

an area of land where no one lives and nothing is grown (by man)

wildfowl

wild ducks or geese

windbreak

something made of cloth which is used to give protection from the wind

windsurf

to surf on a board with a sail

windswept

without shelter from cold winds

witch

a woman who uses magic

woodwork

the art of making things out of wood

working class

- people who work, for example, in factories (contrast upper class and middle class)

- belonging to the class of people who work in manual labour eg in factories

world

all seas and countries are on it, and all people and animals live on it

world record (n)

the best yet done in the world

wreath

flowers woven in a circle

writing pad

paper for writing letters